English for Language Studies


    Add a header to begin generating the table of contents
    article grammar a determiner that may indicate the specificity of reference of a noun phrase
    clause grammar an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
    constituent, grammatical constituent grammar a word or phrase or clause forming part of a larger grammatical construction
    grammatical category, syntactic category grammar a category of words having the same grammatical properties
    head, head word grammar the word in a grammatical constituent that plays the same grammatical role as the whole constituent
    object grammar a constituent that is acted upon; "the object of the verb
    quantifier grammar a word that expresses a quantity (as `fifteen' or `many')
    subject grammar one of the two main constituents of a sentence; the grammatical constituent about which something is predicated
    allophone linguistics any of various acoustically different forms of the same phoneme
    aphaeresis, apheresis linguistics omission at the beginning of a word as in `coon' for `raccoon' or `till' for `until'
    complementary distribution, complementation linguistics a distribution of related speech sounds or forms in such a way that they only appear in different contexts
    derivative linguistics a word that is derived from another word; "`electricity' is a derivative of `electric'
    morphophoneme linguistics the phonemes (or strings of phonemes) that constitute the various allomorphs of a morpheme
    phoneme linguistics one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
    phylum linguistics a large group of languages that are historically related
    postposition linguistics the placing of one linguistic element after another (as placing a modifier after the word that it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix after the base to which it is attached)
    preposition linguistics the placing of one linguistic element before another (as placing a modifier before the word it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix before the base to which it is attached)
    root, root word, base, stem, theme, radical linguistics the form of a word after all affixes are removed; "thematic vowels are part of the stem
    rule, linguistic rule linguistics a rule describing (or prescribing) a linguistic practice
    tone linguistics a pitch or change in pitch of the voice that serves to distinguish words in tonal languages; "the Beijing dialect uses four tones
    topicalization linguistics emphasis placed on the topic or focus of a sentence by pre-posing it to the beginning of the sentence; placing the topic at the beginning of the sentence is typical for English; "`Those girls, they giggle when they see me' and `Cigarettes, y
    voice linguistics the grammatical relation (active or passive) of the grammatical subject of a verb to the action that the verb denotes

    Short Quiz

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    1. The /t/ ______ was chosen because of its unique richness of phonetic variants in American English, where it is subject to flapping, glottalization, lack of release, and lack of aspiration (or extremely short VOT), depending upon the surrounding phonemes and structural position (Ladefoged & Johnson, 2006). 


    (Excerpt from: Fritche, Robin, Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie & Song, Jae Yung. (2021). Do adults produce phonetic variants of /t/ less often in speech to children? Journal of Phonetics, 87(2021), 101056.) 

    2 / 2

    Note that, at some level of description, (70) and (71) are identical: they involve VP-fronting that strands a verb in the main ______. The difference lies in the form of the stranded verb. 


    (Excerpt from: ArregiKarlos & Pietraszko, Asia. (2021). The Ups and Downs of Head Displacement. Linguistics Inquiry, 52(2), 241-290.) 

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