English for Psychology


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    3 Box Model In memory, a theory by Atkinson and Shiffrin that the human memory can be divided into 3 areas: the Sensory memory, Short-Term memory and Long-Term memory.
    abience an urge to withdraw or avoid a situation or an object
    Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is a division of psychology that studies people who are "abnormal" or "atypical" compared to the members of a given society.
    acathexis a lack of cathexis; a condition in which significant objects or memories arouse no emotion in an individual
    acting out the display of previously inhibited emotions (often in actions rather than words); considered to be healthy and therapeutic
    adience an urge to accept or approach a situation or an object
    Agency Theory Relating to experiment by Milgram (1963). Theory that a person acts in one of two states: in an Agentic State or Autonomous State
    Agentic State A state of mind in which a person acts on behalf of somebody else, devoid of free will.
    Aggression Physical or verbal attitude of acting assertively but negatively towards others.
    Agreeableness Personality trait of tending to appease and agree with others. One of the Big Five Personality Traits.
    Altered State of Consciousness (ASC) State of mind that deviates from normal consciousness. Induced, for example, through hypnosis, meditation, sleep or mental disorder such as Major Depressive Disorder.
    Altruism Act of goodwill towards another, either in a selfless manner or with the expectation of a return of favour.
    ambiversion a balanced disposition intermediate between extroversion and introversion
    anaclisis relationship marked by strong dependence on others; especially a libidinal attachment to e.g. a parental figure
    anal personality, anal retentive personality a personality characterized by meticulous neatness and suspicion and reserve; said to be formed in early childhood by fixation during the anal stage of development (usually as a consequence of toilet training)
    Anal Stage A part of Sigmund Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, the anal stage follows the Oral Stage (from birth until around the first year) and can last up to around the age of 3. A preoccupation with oral satisfaction, such as feeding, is superseded by satisfaction from defecation. Disruption at this stage can lead to an anal fixation: anally retentive personalities may show signs of obsessive orderliness, while anally expulsive types may be messy or disorganised in later life.
    anal stage, anal phase the second sexual and social stage of a child's development during which bowel control is learned
    Anger Management Therapy encouraging looking at anger in a different way, often involving the use of relaxation to prevent anger.
    Anima The Anima is a key archetype in Jungian psychology. It represents qualities considered to be idealised feminine attributes, such as compassion and sensitivity, and may be repressed in males. Conversely, the animus in females represents those qualities which are seen as masculine.
    Anorexia Eating disorder resulting loss of weight from negative body image or fear of gaining weight.
    anorexia nervosa a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated
    Anti-Psychiatry Movement opposing the classification of people with abnormal behaviour or thoughts as mentally ill.
    Anxiety Internal feeling of stress and worry. Can be a symptom of anxiety disorders such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
    Applied Psychology Principle of using knowledge from psychology theories, studies and experiments to help people to overcome mental issues and in other areas of life.
    Archetype In Jungian psychology, archetypes are common model concepts which are held in the collective unconscious and manifest as characters in cultural artefacts such as paintings, myths and other stories. Archetypes include the Great Mother, the Trickster and the Wise Old Man.
    Association Conditioning involving the linking of two concepts, e.g. drink-driving advertisements encourage the association of drink-driving with car accidents.
    associationism, association theory a theory that association is the basic principle of mental activity
    atomism a theory that reduces all mental phenomena to simple elements (sensations and feelings) that form complex ideas by association
    Attachment According to John Bowlby's Attachment Theory, an attachment is the bond formed in the early stages of development between an infant and a person such as a caregiver (e.g. a parent). Bowlby emphasized the importance of such attachments and claimed that the quality of such bonds can affect us later in life.
    Attachment Theory Theory of bonds formulated by psychologist John Bowlby, usually between parent and baby at an early stage, that can influence future relationships.
    Authoritarian Personality Personality type theorised by Theodor Adorno in a book of the same name. Authoritarian personality types may be influenced by harsh treatment in early years of development, and can result in an empathy with authority.
    Authoritarianism In political philosophy, authoritarianism the belief that power should be concentrated in a limited group of persons or in the case of a dictatorship, often a singular person. Authoritarians require complete obedience by subjects are prone to arbitrary behaviour such as punishments and may be resistant to those who question the source of their authority.
    autism an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
    Autonomous State State of mind in which one's actions are based on one's own thoughts and inclinations.
    behavior, behaviour the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation
    Behaviour Modification Behaviour Modification consists of technique designed to improve behaviour, often using conditioning.
    Behaviourism Approach in psychology focusing on external (as opposed to cognitive) behaviour.
    Big Five Personality Traits Common areas of personality measure: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism.
    Biological Approach Approach takes the view that hereditary, genetic factors, as well as brain and body chemistry, can influence mood and behaviour.
    Brainwashing Technique of behaviour modification through the internalisation of ideas or an ideology.
    breaking point stress at which a person breaks down or a situation becomes crucial
    castration anxiety anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats to your sexual functions; originally applied only to men but can in principal apply to women
    catharsis, katharsis, abreaction purging of emotional tensions
    cathexis, charge the libidinal energy invested in some idea or person or object; "Freud thought of cathexis as a psychic analog of an electrical charge
    Circadian Rhythm A circadian rhythm is a biological rhythm which repeats approximately every 24 hours. An example of a circadian rhythm is the sleep-wake cycle.
    Circannual Rhythm A circannual rhythm is a biological rhythm which occurs approximately once each year. Birds' migration is an example of a circannual rhythm.
    Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach in psychology emphasizes the significance of a person's cognitive processes, such as thoughts, as an influence on their behaviour.
    Collective Unconscious According to Carl Jung, a collection of memories and ideas which we all inherit, regardless of the culture or time period into which we were born. The collective unconscious contains archetypes which may surface in dreams and myths independently across different societies.
    Compatibilism Compatibilism is a theory that free will and determinism can co-exist.
    compensation a defense mechanism that conceals your undesirable shortcomings by exaggerating desirable behaviors
    complex a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior
    condensation an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams
    confabulation a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered
    Conscientiousness Personality trait of being conscious of one's actions. One of the Big Five Personality Traits.
    Conscious Area of the psyche in which a person's awareness operates and readily accessible memories reside.
    conversion a defense mechanism represses emotional conflicts which are then converted into physical symptoms that have no organic basis
    Critical Period A critical period in developmental psychology are periods of time during which a particular process, such as filial imprinting, may be expected to occur. The absence of the required external stimuli can lead to incomplete development during this stage. For example, in the case of filial imprinting, if a moving object (e.g. their mother) is not witnessed during the critical period shortly after birth, a baby may not form a filial imprint of that stimulus.
    death instinct, death wish an unconscious urge to die
    defense mechanism, defense reaction, defence mechanism, defence reaction, defense, defence an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires
    delusion, psychotic belief an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary
    denial a defense mechanism that denies painful thoughts
    Determinism In psychology, the belief that cognitive processes and behaviour are determined by genetic factors and external environmental influences. Determinism negates the ability of humans to choose their behaviour entirely of their own free will.
    Didactic Informative with a focus on instructive teaching.
    displacement a defense mechanism that transfers affect or reaction from the original object to some more acceptable one
    double bind an unresolvable dilemma; situation in which a person receives contradictory messages from a person who is very powerful
    echolalia mechanical and meaningless repetition of the words of another person (as in schizophrenia)
    Ego In the psychodynamic model, the ego is the aspect of the personality which attempts to satisfy the needs of the id, but recognises that not all of its needs can be reasonably fulfilled.
    ego ideal the part of the ego that contains an ideal of personal excellence toward which a person strives
    Electra Complex Comparable to the Oedipus Complex in Freudian psychology, the Electra Complex refers to the competition for the affection of the father in females. This can lead to a resentment of the mother, whom the father demonstrates love for. The Electra Complex is named after Electra in Greek mythology, a character who plans with her brother, Orestes, to murder her mother, Clytemnestra, in revenge for her murdering the Electra's father.
    experimenter bias bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment
    Extraversion Personality trait of confident, outgoing behaviour and being assertive in one's actions. One of the Big Five Personality Traits.
    extraversion, extroversion an extroverted disposition; concern with what is outside the self
    extrovert, extravert a person concerned more with practical realities than with inner thoughts and feelings
    Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitness testimony is the evidence given by witnesses primarily in court case. The reliability and accuracy of eyewitness testimonies has been questioned by psychologists such as Elizabeth Loftus and can be affected by false memories.
    False Memory A false memory is a memory which a person may falsely recall in the belief that it is true. False memories may be created inadvertently or intentionally, as demonstrated by the Lost in the Mall Technique (Coan, 1997). The discovery of false memories has had implications for use of eyewitness testimonies in court cases.
    Fechner's law, Weber-Fechner law the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity; based on early work by E. H. Weber
    Fight-or-Flight Response The fight-or-flight response was first used by Walter Bradford Cannon to describe a set of physiological responses that are triggered in stressful situations, including the contraction of muscles and dilation of the pupils in a state of heightened awareness in preparation to respond to a threat.
    Filial Imprinting Filial imprinting is a process which occurs in the early stages of life, when an infant observes a moving person or object and forms an attachment to them. Originally described by Douglas Spalding as 'stamping in', the process was referred to as 'imprinting' by Oskar Heinroth and demonstrated by his student, Konrad Lorenz, in greylag geese (Lorenz, 1935).
    Free Will The ability to make one's own decisions and to choose how to behave without external influences determining behaviour. Opposed to determinism.
    Freudian Slip Inadvertent mispronunciation of, or unconscious use of, a word or phrase in a way that unintentionally reveals a person's true feelings or opinions.
    generalization, generalisation, stimulus generalization, stimulus generalisation transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
    genital personality the mature personality which is not dominated by infantile pleasure drives
    genital stage, genital phase the fifth sexual and social stage in a person's development occurring during adolescence; interest focuses on sexual activity
    Gestalt psychology, configurationism a theory of psychology that emphasizes the importance of configurational properties
    Great Mother The Great Mother is one of the primary archetypes described by Carl Jung. She may embody typical maternal qualities such as that of a caring, understanding and encouraging parent who may be consulted for advice or sought in times of need. Another contrasting side of this archetype is the Shadow of the Great Mother, whose destructive forces is to be feared. The concept of Mother Nature, for example, sees the positive, creative influence of the Great Mother in the fertility, growth and abundance of crops, whilst her Shadow is embodied in the destructive tendencies of storms, tsunamis and earthquakes.
    Hierarchy of Needs Set of physiological and growth needs identified by Abraham Maslow (1943) as motivating our behaviour.
    Humanistic Psychology Approach in psychology emphasising the ability of the patient or other subject to determine their behaviour.
    Hypnosis Altered state of awareness induced by a combination of relaxation and suggestion, allowing access to the subconscious.
    Id Id (meaning 'it' in Latin) in the psychodynamic model is the aspect of one's personality which expresses a person's innate needs and demands instant gratification of those needs. Later in development, a person's id is tempered by the ego and eventually the superego.
    idealization, idealisation a defense mechanism that splits something you are ambivalent about into two representations--one good and one bad
    imago an idealized image of someone (usually a parent) formed in childhood
    Individuation According to Carl Jung, individuation is a process of realising one's true Self. Jung claimed that people's aspiration to live up to certain archetypes lead to them repressing some aspects of their Self. These must be allowed to surface and coexist (a process referred to as 'integration') for a person to understand who they really are.
    Infradian Rhythm An infradian rhythm is a biological rhythm which occurs less than once every 24 hours. The menstruation cycle is an example of an infradian rhythm.
    inhibition, suppression the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires
    intellectualization, intellectualisation a defense mechanism that uses reasoning to block out emotional stress and conflict
    introject a parental figures (and their values) that you introjected as a child; the voice of conscience is usually a parent's voice internalized
    introjection unconscious internalization of aspects of the world (especially aspects of persons) within the self in such a way that the internalized representation takes over the psychological functions of the external objects
    Introversion Personality trait characterised by quiet thoughtfulness and an aversion to social situations particularly in large groups, in contrast to extroversion.
    Introvert An introvert, is a person whose personality type is one of introversion. Characteristics often include reserved behaviour such as quietness and an aversion to social interactions. An introvert may prefer their own company or small groups and take a contemplative approach to problems. The opposite of an introvert is an extrovert.
    isolation a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it
    just-noticeable difference, jnd the difference between two stimuli that (under properly controlled experimental conditions) is detected as often as it is undetected
    latency stage, latency phase, latency period the fourth period (from about age 5 or 6 until puberty) during which sexual interests are supposed to be sublimated into other activities
    latent content hidden meaning of a fantasy or dream
    Law of Effect In behavioural psychology, the Law of Effect was a theory put forward by Edward Thorndike which proposed that behaviour carrying a reward would be 'stamped in' - associated with the reward and so carried out more often - and behaviour that was punished or produced no reward would be 'stamped out' and reduced.
    libidinal energy psychic energy produced by the libido
    libido a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire
    major depressive episode a state of depression with all the classic symptoms (anhedonia and lethargy and sleep disturbance and despondency and morbid thoughts and feelings of worthlessness and sometimes attempted suicide) but with no known organic dysfunction
    mental disorder, mental disturbance, disturbance, psychological disorder, folie a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
    Neuroticism Anxious mentality, often leading to stress and/or anger. One of the Big Five Personality Traits.
    Observational Psychology Approach which aims to understand behaviour and learning through observation.
    Oedipus Complex In Freudian psychology, a complex in males which leads to a person competing for the attention and affection of their mother. This demand is often in competition with a person's father, who may become the focus of feelings of resentment or jealousy. The Oedipus Complex takes its name from a character in Greek mythology whose competition for the affection of his mother, Jocasta, leads Oedipus to murder his own father, Laius. In females, the Oedipus Complex may be compared to the Electra Complex.
    Openness to Experience Open-minded attitude towards new ideas. One of the Big Five Personality Traits.
    oral personality a personality characterized either by generous optimism or aggressive and ambitious selfishness; formed in early childhood by fixation during the oral stage of development
    Oral Stage According to Sigmund Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, the oral stage occurs in the first year after birth, when the need to feed is satisfied orally. Irregularities experienced during the oral stage, such as food deprivation, can lead to an oral fixation, which can manifest itself as a need for oral satisfaction (e.g. chewing gum) later in life.
    oral stage, oral phase the first sexual and social stage of an infant's development; the mouth is the focus of the libido and satisfaction comes from suckling and chewing and biting
    overcompensation an attempt to overcome a real or imagined defect or unwanted trait by overly exaggerating its opposite
    paramnesia a disorder of memory in which dreams or fantasies are confused with reality
    Pavlov's Dogs Experiments by Ivan Pavlov demonstrating classical conditioning with regards to salivation in dogs.
    penis envy a female's presumed envy of the male's penis; said to explain femininity
    Persona According to Jungian psychology, the persona is the image of ourselves which we attempt to project to others. We may view some traits of our personality as negative and suppress them from our Persona. Therefore, the Persona may not represent a person's genuine inner Self, and may also be influenced by the model personalities, or archetypes, which a person aspires to.
    Personal Unconscious In Jungian psychology, the Personal Unconscious is a component of the psyche, in which experiences, thoughts or feelings that have been repressed may reside. The contents of the Personal Unconscious can affect the subject matter of dreams, can and emerge in other forms, such as an irrational fear.
    Phallic Stage According to Sigmund Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, the Phallic Stage follows the Oral and Anal stages and occurs between the ages of approximately 3 to 6 years. During the Phallic Stage, the erogenous zone moves from anal/bowel movements to the genitals. At this stage, the person may experience the Oedipus Complex or Electra Complex.
    phallic stage, phallic phase the third stage in a child's development when awareness of and manipulation of the genitals is supposed to be a primary source of pleasure
    Pleasure Principle Assertion that our actions are motivated by the pursuit of maximum pleasure and enduring the least amount of pain possible.
    pleasure principle, pleasure-pain principle, pleasure-unpleasure principle the governing principle of the id; the principle that an infant seeks gratification and fails to distinguish fantasy from reality
    process, cognitive process, mental process, operation, cognitive operation the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents; "the process of thinking"; "the cognitive operation of remembering
    projection a defense mechanism by which your own traits and emotions are attributed to someone else
    Psyche Totality of the human mind, including the conscious and subconscious. The role of the psyche is the focus of the psychoanalytic approach, whose proponents include Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung.
    Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis consists of a range of techniques which attribute abnormal feelings and behaviours to the internal conflicts of the mind. Psychoanalysts, beginning with Sigmund Freud and later Carl Jung amongst others, may use techniques such as hypnosis and regression to uncover repressed memories and thoughts in the subconscious mind, with the belief that by enabling them to surface in the conscious mind, a person can overcome problems.
    Psychodynamic Approach An approach in psychology which focuses on internal process of the psyche. Originating from the theories of Sigmund Freud, the psychodynamic approach looks at 'dynamics' which can influence feelings, thoughts and behaviour, including conflicts between the subconscious and conscious mind, the effect of experiences earlier in life, such as fixation during Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development.
    psychological state, mental state a mental condition in which the qualities of a state are relatively constant even though the state itself may be dynamic; "a manic state
    psychosexual development the process during which personality and sexual behavior mature through a series of stages: first oral stage and then anal stage and then phallic stage and then latency stage and finally genital stage
    Rapid Eye Movement Rapid Eye Movement, or REM, is the rapid movement of the eyes which occurs during the sleep cycle. REM is commonly associated with dreaming.
    rationalization, rationalisation a defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening
    reaction formation a defense mechanism in which a person unconsciously develops attitudes and behavior that are the opposite of unacceptable repressed desires and impulses and serve to conceal them; "his strict morality is just a reaction formation to hide his
    Reality Principle According to the analytical approach, the idea that our behaviour is informed not only by one's inner desires (as opposed to the Pleasure Principle) but with recognition of external realities and what is reasonable or acceptable.
    Recall In the study of human memory, recall is the ability to access a memory when it is needed. Successful memory recall depends on various factors. For example, Craik and Lockhart (1972) claimed that increased effort spent thinking over, or rehearsing, information can lead to an increased chance of recall.
    Reciprocal Altruism Helping others at the expense of one's own resources, in the expectation that the favour will be repaid in the future. E.g. vampire bats feed related bats blood and expect that they will do the same when requested (Trivers, 1971).
    Reductionism In psychology, considering human processes in a simplified manner, often criticized by humanistic theories for de-humanizing subjects by considering them on an atomistic level.
    Regression Regression is often used as a therapeutic technique to take a subject back to an earlier point in their life with a hope of finding causes to problems in the present.
    rehearsal a form of practice; repetition of information (silently or aloud) in order to keep it in short-term memory
    reinforcing stimulus, reinforcer, reinforcement a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
    Repression Repression refers to the concealment of memories, thoughts or feelings which in the conscious would cause anxiety or discomfort. These repressed ideas reside in the unconscious (or, according to Carl Jung, the Personal Unconscious) and may surface in dreams or influence a person without them being aware, such as in the case of Josef Breuer's client, Anna O. Therefore, repressed thoughts and their effect on a person are often the subject of psychoanalysts' work.
    resistance an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness
    Retroactive Interference Retroactive interference refers to the impact of information on the recall of memories that have already been stored. Interference can include the wording of questions that a research uses, as demonstrated in a 1978 experiment which manipulated participants' recall of the events in a video with the use of different questions (Loftus, Miller and Burns, 1978).
    sensitization, sensitisation the process of becoming highly sensitive to specific events or situations (especially emotional events or situations)
    set, readiness a temporary readiness to respond in a particular way; "the subjects' set led them to solve problems the familiar way and to overlook the simpler solution"; "his instructions deliberately gave them the wrong set
    Sexual Imprinting Sexual imprinting is a process of observation of one's parents which influences a person's sexual preferences later in life. Sexual imprinting can, for example, affect the traits that an animal will seek in a potential mate (Gallagher, 1977).
    Shadow In Jungian psychology, the Shadow is an archetype which represents the side of a person which is hidden from the persona. The Shadow contains a person's anxieties and traits which they consider, correctly or incorrectly, to be negative. For example, it may contain a person's sensitivity and humility, which to some is a positive attribute but to the person may be a sign of weakness.
    Simultaneous Discovery When a discovery is made by two or more parties independently of each other. For example, U.S. psychologist Edwin Twitmyer produced theories similar to classical conditioning around the time that Ivan Pavlov demonstrated it in Russia (Coon, 1982).
    Sleep Cycle Circadian biological rhythm oscillating between sleep and awakedness.
    Stamping In According to Edward Thorndike's Law of Effect, stamping in is the association of a particular type of behaviour with a subsequent reward. Thorndike proposed that this association would produce similar behaviour as a result of the reward.
    Stamping Out In the Law of Effect proposed by Edward Thorndike, stamping out is the association of a certain behaviour with a punishment, or at least the absence of any reward. Over time, the behaviour would be 'stamped out' - it would gradually decrease as a result of the association.
    Stanford Prison Experiment (1971) Experiment conducted by Philip Zimbardo in which participants were assigned roles of prison guard or prisoner. Participants assigned as prison guards undertook increasingly cruel behaviour in the believe that they were conforming to their social role.
    Stevens' law, power law, Stevens' power law the concept that the magnitude of a subjective sensation increases proportional to a power of the stimulus intensity
    strain, mental strain, nervous strain nervousness resulting from mental stress; "his responsibilities were a constant strain"; "the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him
    Subconscious Level of consciousness beneath our awareness which cannot be accessed at will. According to psychodynamic theory, the subconscious may contain repressed thoughts and memories and can influence dreams. Attempts to access the subconscious have been made using hypnosis and regression.
    sublimation modifying the natural expression of an impulse or instinct (especially a sexual one) to one that is socially acceptable
    Subliminal Message A communication that is unrealized on a conscious level but understood on a subliminal level.
    Superego The superego is the most developed aspect of the personality compared to the id and the ego, according to the psychodynamic model. The superego represents our conscience, recognising the needs of those in the external world, and is responsible for feelings of guilt.
    Superstition Irrational belief, often involving a fear of consequences arising from another, unlinked behaviour or absence of behaviour.
    Systematic Desensitization Treatment used to help users to overcome fears and phobias with a user embracing relaxation and 'coping' techniques.
    Tabula Rasa Meaning 'blank slate' in Latin, the idea that humans are influenced by environmental, rather than innate, influences.
    tension, tenseness, stress a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense; "he suffered from fatigue and emotional tension"; "stress is a vasoconstrictor
    Token Economy Form of operant conditioning by which a subject is 'taught' to behave in a particular manner through a process of rewarding.
    Trait With regards to personality, a trait is aspect of someone's personality, e.g. Agreeableness.
    Trance Relaxed state of mind commonly used in hypnosis.
    Transactional Analysis Theory of personality in psychology, developed by Eric Berne. A humanistic, neo-Freudian approach which focuses on inter-personal 'transactions' - communication.
    transference the process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another; during psychoanalysis the displacement of feelings toward others (usually the parents) is onto the analyst
    Twin Studies Twin studies are common in psychology, enabling researchers to identify variations among subjects whose genetic makeup are very similar, therefore eliminating hereditary factors as an influence on a disorder or other issue.
    Ultradian Rhythm An ultradian rhythm, such as the stages of sleep, is a biological rhythm which occurs more frequently than every 24 hours.
    unitization, unitisation, chunking the configuration of smaller units of information into large coordinated units
    Validity In psychological research, the quality of an argument or degree to which an experiment is accurate and may be generalized.
    Vanity Narcissistic personality trait, with focus on one's self.
    Weber's law the concept that a just-noticeable difference in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus; "Weber's law explains why you don't notice your headlights are on in the daytime
    Westermarck Effect The Westermarck Effect, named after Finnish anthropologist Edvard Westermarck, is a tendency for people to develop sexually passive attitude to those in their social circle, and to seek a partner who is outside of that circle (Westermarck, 1891).
    Wise Old Man Archetype in Jungian psychology representing stoic contemplation and reasoning. The Wise Old Man is reclusive but reaches thought-out decisions.
    Working Memory Model In memory, a theory of remembering devised by Baddeley and Hitch. Proposes that the human memory may be divided into a Articulatory Phonological Loop, Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad which communicate with a Central Executive.
    Zeitgeber A zeitgeber (from the German "time" and "giver") is an endogenous cue in the environment which helps animals' internal pacemaker to regulate biological rhythms. For example, daylight is a zeitgeber which helps to regulate daily (circadian) rhythms.
    Zone of Proximal Development Theory proposed by Belarusian psychologist Lev Vygotsky which proposes that a person's cognitive abilities are central to a 'zone', further out of which one finds their potential abilities, which can be developed through social learning.

    Short Quiz

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    Boredom is viewed as leading to impaired learning owing to inappropriate allocation of ______ resources (attention shifts to the boredom itself, taking away crucial ______ resources from the task at hand), decreased motivation to learn, the use of shallow learning strategies, and reliance on external pressure rather than self-regulation of learning (Pekrun, 2006). 


    (Excerpt from: Hunter, Jennifer A. & Eastwood, John D. (2021). Understanding the relation between boredom and academic performance in postsecondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(3), 499-515.) 

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    1. A number of evidenced-based interventions have been developed to address more obvious symptoms of neurobiological adaptations to ACEs. These symptoms may include ______ in sleep, aggression, hyperarousal, poor impulse control, diminished executive functioning (including attentional processes and memory), depressed mood and anxiety, somatic complaints, impaired social relationships, and developmental delay (Purewal et al., 2016). 


    (Excerpt from: Hays-Grudo, Jennifer, Morris, Amanda Sheffield, Beasley, Lana, Cicolla, Lucia, Shreffier, Karina & Croff, Julie. (2021). Integrating and synthesizing adversity and resilience knowledge and action: The ICARE model. American Psychologist, 76(2), 203-215.) 

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